ASU 2016-16 Adds Transparency and Simplifies Reporting
The presently prescribed method of accounting for income taxes on the sale of assets between affiliated companies (intra-entity transfers) has in recent years generated discord between accounting professionals and the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB). With FASB’s October 24, 2016 issuance of ASU 2016-16, however, the concerns of the accounting profession in this respect have been largely addressed.
FASB stipulations to this point have required that recognition of the income tax effects of intra-entity transfers be deferred until the asset is subsequently sold outside the affiliated group, a rule running counter to the general ASC 740 principle that current and deferred income taxes be recognized in the year that the event triggering them occurs.
Under the newly enacted ASU 2016-16, this deferral methodology goes away for all intercompany asset sales other than sales of inventory (which will remain under the previous FASB guidance). Companies will now be required to recognize the income tax effects (current and deferred) of intercompany non-inventory asset sales in the period in which they occur, despite the transaction being eliminated from consolidated pre-tax income. Thus, this new guidance both simplifies the accounting procedures for intra-entity transfers and adds transparency to their financial reporting, as the income statement tax effects recorded will typically coincide with any cash tax impact incurred in the same reporting period.
While FASB did not prescribe new financial statement disclosure requirements in this pronouncement, it has commented that existing disclosure requirements may apply to intra-entity transfers and their tax ramifications. For instance, companies may have to cite the tax effects of intra-entity transfers within their effective tax rate reconciliations or in disclosing the types of temporary differences giving rise to their deferred tax assets and liabilities.
ASU 2016-16 becomes effective for publicly traded companies in years beginning after December 15, 2017, including interim periods within those years (i.e., first quarter of 2018 for calendar-year companies). For non-public entities, they become effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2018 and for interim reporting periods within annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2019. Early adoption is permitted, but can only occur in the first quarter of a reporting year (e.g., first quarter 2017 for calendar year companies).
Questions? Contact us to discuss the new reporting requirements and what they might mean for your company.View full article
President Obama renewed his call for expanding child, family and education tax credits in his fiscal Year (FY) 2015 budget proposals as well as for curbing some tax preferences for higher income individuals and businesses. Many of the proposals are familiar from past budgets, but for FY 2015 the White House is placing special emphasis on passing tax reform for families and lower income individuals.
To learn more, check out this SPECIAL REPORT.
By: Sandra DeSimone, CPA, Manager
If your organization is considering applying for tax exempt status with the Internal Revenue Service (IRS), you may want to consider doing it on-line.
Peter Lorenzetti, the IRS Northeast Exempt Organization Exam Manager, recently presented at the New York State Society of Certified Public Accountants Exempt Organizations Conference. The presentation discussed the September 2013 IRS launch of the much anticipated interactive on-line Form 1023 Application for Recognition of Exemption under 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code.
The online version of the form 1023 was designed to make the application process more efficient and user friendly. When the application is being filled out on-line, there are pop-up boxes with instructions and information to assist the user. According to Lorenzetti, since its launch, 166 applications for tax exempt status have been completed using the new interactive Form 1023 and the comments from users have been positive.
How long will it take for an application to be approved?
Recently, the IRS has come under scrutiny for long wait times of application approvals. Lorenzetti noted the average application takes six months to be approved. Some causes for delayed applications are submission of incorrect user fee, and/or inaccurate or incomplete applications. Key wording also needs to be targeted in the narratives, to demonstrate the mission of the organization. It is suggested that the application be thoroughly reviewed before submitting it to the IRS.
We suggest your organization obtain professional advice with your organization’s application for tax exempt status. Freed Maxick CPA’s is an expert in the process. We can either prepare your application or review it before it is submitted. Contact Us today to get connected to a professional who can help.
By: Amanda Roth, Senior Tax Manager
Halloween is a signifier of many things. It brings to mind the fall season, children running around in costumes, carving pumpkins, baking apple pies, and eating candy. Few look at the picture at right and think about paying sales tax. But sales tax applies to many things- including Halloween items. Here are a few sales tax facts to consider this Halloween.
In New York State, sales of pie pumpkins, gourds, and other items sold in supermarkets that are used by a purchaser in cooking pies, cakes, breads, cookies, etc., are exempt from New York sales tax because they constitute food sold for human consumption. However, decorative and carving pumpkins (including decoration gourds) are not being marketed or sold in their normal or intended use for human consumption. Thus, decorative pumpkins and gourds, and carving pumpkins, whether sold in supermarkets, farm stands, nurseries, or other businesses, are not sold as “food” and constitute tangible personal property subject to sales tax. So if you are buying a pumpkin which you will use to bake a pie then it is exempt from New York sales tax. However, if you are buying a carving pumpkin to carve a jack-o-lantern, that pumpkin is subject to New York sales tax.
In addition, generally, food, food products, beverages, dietary foods and health supplements sold for human consumption are not subject to New York sales tax. However, the exemption does not apply to candy and confectionery. Therefore, Halloween candy is subject to New York sales tax.
Also, beginning April 1, 2012, there is an exemption from New York state sales and use tax for clothing, footwear, and items used to make or repair clothing, costing less than $110 per item or pair. This exemption does not apply to locally imposed sales and use taxes unless the county or city imposing those taxes elected the exemption. For purposes of the exemption, the term "clothing and footwear" is defined to mean: clothing and footwear to be worn by human beings. This does not include costumes or rented formal wear; fabric, thread, yarn, buttons, snaps, hooks, zippers and like items that are used or consumed to make or repair such clothing (other than costumes or rented formal wear) and become a physical component part of the clothing. Therefore, the pants you buy to take you child “trick or treating” are exempt from New York sales tax but your child’s Halloween costume is subject to New York sales tax.
New York state sales tax is complicated and most areas are not straight forward. Sometimes the use of an item dictates whether and item is subject to sales tax. If sales tax is this complex for Halloween items, imagine how complicated they can be when considering whether your business needs to collect sales tax.
For information about how Freed Maxick can help guide and manage your individual or business tax strategies, contact us to learn more.
FASB reaches Consensus and Ratifies EITF Issue No. 13-C
On June 26, 2013 the Financial Accounting Standards Board effectively ratified the guidance provided by the Emerging Tax Force Issue No. 13-C. The following is a summary of the consensus:
Unrecognized tax benefits should be netted against tax losses or credit carryforwards from the same jurisdiction that could be utilized to offset the UTB. The UTB would reduce the deferred tax asset established for these losses or credits and would not be recorded as a separate liability.
The new standard requires prospective adoption but allows optional retrospective adoption (for all periods presented).
For public companies, the standard must be adopted in years beginning after December 15, 2013 (and in interim periods).
For private companies the standard must be adopted in years beginning after December 15, 2014 (and in interim periods).
No new disclosures are required. However, if the gross amount of the loss or credit (i.e. the amount listed on the income tax returns as-filed) is disclosed, then further explanation may be needed to explain the difference on the returns versus the amount in the financial statements.
At this time, it appears as if the SEC requirements for the disclosure of UTBs will not change. Therefore, the gross amount of UTBs would still appear in the footnote disclosure.
It will still be important to continue to track the UTBs. For example, there could be an adjustment to the UTB presentation if the position on the UTB changes, or if the loss or credit carryforwards are used. Similarly, if the loss or credit has a full valuation allowance against it, then the VA could change as well if the UTB is no longer necessary.
When it comes to taxes, Freed Maxick CPAs is different than most accounting firms in Western New York. To us, tax time is all the time. We’re sticklers about deadlines and compliance, but our larger goal is tax management. So we keep a year-round eye on federal, state and local tax laws, including those pending. We alert you to any changes that may affect you and help you respond in a timely way.
We have no doubt that we bring a level of in-house tax expertise second to none in Upstate New York. We have the experience and resources necessary to resolve all your tax issues no matter what the complexity, including:
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The Supreme Court’s decision on DOMA and Prop 8 is not only a civil rights win for same sex couples- it’s a financial win for many.
In an unprecedented event last week, the Supreme Court ruled that the 1996 Defense of Marriage Act (“DOMA”) singled out same-sex marriage and treated same-sex couples "as living in marriages less respected than others." This week’s ruling will now give same-sex couples many of the same benefits (and in some cases, drawbacks) as any other married couple in the eyes of the law. Married same-sex couples in a dozen states and the District of Columbia will now be eligible for more than “1,000 spousal benefits previously off limits under DOMA.” And the court's other decision on Wednesday, striking down California's Prop 8, paves the way for same-sex marriages to resume in that state.
Key Aspects of the DOMA Ruling Include:
Income tax: Same-sex couples will now be able to file their federal income taxes jointly. For many couples -- especially those where one person earns significantly more than the other -- merging incomes for tax purposes will result in big savings. In addition, many education benefits, such as the American Opportunity Tax Credit and Lifetime Learning Credit, are now available to the spouse in a same-sex marriage where one spouse pays for qualified expenses of the other.
Health insurance: Some same-sex couples pay income tax on imputed income for the medical benefits one partner receives through the other's health insurance plan; this will now likely change. Meanwhile, many federal employees will likely be granted spousal benefits like partner health insurance.
Estate and Gift tax: Same-sex couples will also be exempt from gift tax when transferring assets to each other. Under DOMA, any gift between same-sex spouses of more than $14,000 (the 2013 annual gift tax exclusion) began utilizing the lifetime exclusion limit of $5.25 million-- after which tax was assessed on gifts exceeding the exclusion. Opposite-sex couples have never been subject to that tax. Same-sex couples will also be eligible to “split” gifts to take advantage of a doubled annual gift tax exclusion ($14,000 above x 2 married individuals or $28,000 for 2013) In addition, the unused lifetime exclusion of the decedent spouse is now portable and will allow the estate of the surviving spouse to utilize it.
Social Security benefits: Same-sex couples will now be eligible for the same federal tax treatment and Social Security benefits as opposite-sex couples in the event that one spouse passes away. This means a surviving spouse will be eligible for Social Security survivor’s benefits and will be exempt from the federal estate tax on assets exceeding $5.25 million. Note: In states where same-sex marriage is banned, this issue still has to be sorted out as the Social Security Administration has based these benefits on the state of residence.
While many will receive the benefits of this ruling; they will also receive its downside. For example, same-sex couples who divorce may be subject to the federal gift tax when dividing assets, or be partially responsible for the back taxes of the divorcing partner. Also, same-sex married couples will now have to file as either married filing joint, surviving spouse or married filing separate. Thus, the “marriage penalty” will impact some same-sex couples.
What the decision doesn't do: While many specifics of the Supreme Court's ruling are still blurry, it appears that couples must be married at a state level for all of these federal benefits to apply -- meaning domestic partnerships and civil unions don't qualify. It's also unclear whether federal benefits will apply to same-sex couples who marry in a state where same-sex marriage is legal but move to a state where it's not recognized.
To learn more check out this special report detailing Post DOMA Tax Implications
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Due Date of July 31, 2013 for Payment of Tax on Certain Self-funded Health Insurance Plans
The Affordable Care Act of 2010 established the Patient-Centered Outcome Research Institute (PCORI) for the purpose of conducting research to evaluate and compare health outcomes, clinical effectiveness, risks and benefits of two or more medical treatments, services, and procedures. This “PCORI fee” was created, in part, to pay for its activities.
The fee is one dollar, times the “average number of lives” covered under the plan, for each plan year ending after September 30, 2012 and before October 1, 2013 and two dollars per covered person for each plan year that ends thereafter and up through September 30, 2019.
The “average number of lives” is determined by one of four optional methods. For plan years beginning before July 11, 2012 and ending after October 1, 2012 any reasonable method can be used per IRS Form 720.
Employers with self-funded health insurance plans (including VEBAs) are now required to pay a “fee” to the IRS for each plan year ending after September 30, 2012 and before October 1, 2019.
Employers with self insured plans that have year-ends between October 1, 2012 and December 31, 2012 are required to pay the fee and file Form 720, Quarterly Federal Excise Tax Return by July 31, 2013.
The fee is considered to be a deductible tax expense.
Generally, health insurance policies and self-insured plans that provide only excepted benefits, such as plans that offer benefits limited to vision or dental benefits, are not subject to the PCORI fee. The PCORI tax applies to tax-exempt organizations and governmental entities.
Employer Mandate Penalty - 2014
Starting in 2014 the ACA will impose an annual penalty on employers who:
(1) do not offer group health insurance coverage to at least 95% of its employees OR
(2) offer its employees coverage that is unaffordable. Health insurance coverage is considered affordable if an employee's required contribution to the plan for self coverage does not exceed 9.5% of the employee's household income (or Form W-2) for the tax year.
For an employer that offers no coverage, the tax is $2,000 for each full time employee (in excess of 30) if at least one employee is certified and enrolled in qualified health care coverage under an insurance exchange. If an employer offers unaffordable coverage, the tax is $3,000 for each employee that is certified. The penalty is calculated on a monthly basis and applies to tax exempt organizations and government entities.
Applicable tax is determined on 2013 employee levels
Only an applicable large employer (ALE) is subject to the tax. The ALE threshold is triggered if an employer hires an average of 50 full time employees (which includes full time equivalents or “FTEs”) in the preceding calendar year. FTEs are determined by aggregating part-time employees under specific rules provided. There are also special rules for seasonal employees. Part-time employees are considered only for purposes of determining ALE status. They are not considered in calculating the penalty.
Thus, for 2014, an employer determines whether it qualifies as an ALE by virtue of its employee count in 2013. An employer can determine whether it has exceeded the ALE threshold by looking at any consecutive six month period it chooses to use in 2013, instead of the full year.
Aggregation of separate businesses may be required in determining ALE status.
Generally, the employee count for separate businesses that share a significant level of common ownership must be aggregated and treated as a single employer in determining whether ALE status applies.
In 2013 employers should assess effort to compile information needed.
Calculating the number of employees subject to the penalty could become very complicated. This is because employers could have a number of different employee “types” (i.e. variable hour, part-time, seasonal, salaried, common law employees v. independent contractors, etc.) Employers should assess the effort needed to make an accurate count of its full time employees There is also an obligation to furnish information to the employees, which is due January 31st of the calendar year following the year for which the employer return is required to be filed. Whether ALEs or employers providing minimal health insurance coverage, there is still a reporting requirement to the IRS even if no penalty is due.
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If you have questions about this issue or other complex tax issues, please contact us for assistance.
Thomson Reuters- President Obama’s signature on the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 completed a massive overhaul of the U.S. health care system that was started with the enactment of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, which contained the bulk of the health reform law. The sweeping changes in these two new laws affect nearly all taxpayers, many employers, and many elements of the health care industry.
The centerpiece of the health care reform legislation is the mandate for most residents of the U.S. to obtain health insurance. This mandate carries with it a host of new tax rules, such as new penalties for individuals who choose to remain uninsured, tax credits, and other sweeteners for participating in new insurance coverage, and new penalties for larger employers that don’t provide insurance (or provide coverage deemed inadequate or unaffordable).
Get the Special Report HERE
You can also check out our recent webinar for more information.
Topics that were covered include:
Which employers are affected?
Which employees are considered?
How is the tax calculated, assessed, and reported?
What are the salient aspects of the tax and health insurance to address?
If you would like to watch the webinar please click the link HERE.
By Joe Burwick, CPA
Crowdfunding is not a new concept, as grassroots fundraising dates back to 1997. But with new platforms, like that of IndieGoGo and Kickstarter, crowdfunding has gained traction in raising revenues for donations, charities, and businesses.
What types are there?
Crowdfunding relies on the concept of asking large groups of organizations and individuals, to contribute to a project. There are three primary types of crowdfunding:
Donation or Reward. When people give money towards a project and receive a gift or promise of one of the finished products in return.
Debt. Receiving funding from people with the expectation they will be paid back with interest in the future.
Equity. This involves getting a large number of people to buy into an idea in return for equity in the project or business.
Depending on the structure of the transaction (Equity, Debt, or Donation/Reward) there are differing tax implications and reporting requirements. For instance, donations/rewards where the investor receives something in return is a taxable event and must be included in gross receipts. However, if deductible business expenses exceed your crowdfunding revenue and other operating revenue, then you won’t owe income tax (but may owe franchise or minimum taxes).
Depending on how the payments are received, the crowdfunding recipient may get Form 1099-K. If payments are made by credit card or if payment in settlement of third party network transactions (i.e. PayPal) where gross payments exceed $20,000 and there are more than 200 transactions, you may receive one of these forms. The IRS will look to match (and analyze) the income on your return to Form 1099-K you receive.
In response to the growing popularity of Crowdfunding, the JOBS act set the Crowdfunding exemption for equity interest offered to the public at a ceiling of $1,000,000 for the aggregate amount sold to all investors in a twelve month period. Prior to this act you had to either register with the SEC or meet another exception before offering securities to the public.
The act further limits the amount sold to any individual investor based upon their annual income or net worth as follows:
If annual income or net worth is less than $100,000; the aggregate amount sold to such investor cannot exceed $2,000 or 5 percent of net worth / annual income.
If annual income or net worth is greater than $100,000 the aggregate amount sold to such investor cannot exceed ten percent of the annual income or net worth of the investor (not to exceed a maximum aggregate amount of $100,000).
You should consult a tax advisor to determine if the amounts received can be excluded from income (i.e. under Internal Revenue Code Section 118 for a Corporation).
What are the Financial Reporting Requirements?
Not only are there potential tax implications to these equity investments, but you must meet various financial reporting requirements as well. Here is what you have to know to meet the financial condition requirements clause of the JOBS act:
Different offering amounts have different SEC financial reporting standards. Congress has set forth the standards as follows:
If the target offering is $100,000 or less, the most recently completed income tax return and financial statements certified by the principal executive officer of the issuer must be provided.
If the target offering is more than $100,000, but not more than $500,000, financial statements reviewed by a public accountant independent of the issuer must be provided.
If the target offering is $500,000 or more, audited financial statements reviewed by a public accountant independent of the issuer must be provided.
As new provisions of the JOBS Act are rolled out, it seems to have raised more questions than answers for entrepreneurs and online start ups. While the bill was designed to help companies tap investors for the early cash they need to get established and hire workers, easing federal requirements for completing private share offerings; a young company would then be bound by SEC rules protecting the rights of their new stockholders, as well as certain state laws.
Don’t expect state security regulators to ease up anytime soon. As crowdfunding gains traction (and the dollars associated with it grow), so too will the scrutinizing of start-ups that issue shares through crowdfunding. Due to the complexities of parts of the JOBS Act and SEC rules toward crowdfunding, entrepreneurs should talk to a tax consultant; to be aware of all the state and federal regulations and the impact it may have at tax time.
Freed Maxick CPAs
Freed Maxick tax auditors will keep you up to date on the most pressing tax issues. If you would like to know how crowdfunding may affect your business at tax time Contact us and connect with our experts.
Ever hear the saying “there’s an app for that”; well now there’s a currency for online users-Bitcoin. With no actual existence in the physical world, Bitcoin has been breaking barriers for online and consumer bartering.
How does it work?
By visiting an online exchange site, you can simply exchange traditional curriences (dollars, pounds, etc) for the virtual currency. Trading started at $7.00 in 2010, in exchange for one Bitcoin. What separates the Bitcoins from other tradable scripts (i.e. the Disney dollar), is that the coins trade on a floating exchange rather than having a fixed exchange rate set to a national currency. Prices have fluctuated wildly over the last couple of years, and with no government oversight or regulation, there is also no way to protect the online exchange. This led to a brief shutdown after Bitcoin sites were hacked. It is back in circulation, but finding places that will take the coin is difficult. There are some restaurants, book stores and online retailers that will take the coin as currency. It requires logging into your IPhone and sending the coins to the retailer you are dealing with, virtually. Once the exchange is complete, you have your merchandise. According to Bitcoin Magazine, the currency has gained over 1 million users.
It can’t be that easy?
It’s not! When Bitcoin first started trading in 2009 it sold for less than a dollar. The virtual currency started garnering more attention when, in the start of January of this year, it rose from $10.00 to roughly $260.00 by April 10th. But that bubble burst when it fell to $77.00; since then it is slowly rising again. Not only is the currency volatile, but investors have had to deal with highly unstable trading platforms- the unfortunate symptom of decentralized currency. Currently there are 11 million Bitcoins in circulation, but this new way of bartering is unpredictable. Traditional currencies are safely held in a range of investment funds and banks. While both have their security problems, only one is considered “hard currency”.
Are there tax implications?
Due to widespread curiosity and the growing interest in Bitcoins, the Treasury Department issued a series of guidelines for Bitcoin brokers. The guidelines serve more as a direction against money laundering than tax implications. The IRS hasn’t specified yet whether Bitcoins should be considered an in-kind payment, bartering system, or foreign currency payment. Trying to decipher between these distinctions is no easy task, as each has its own implications under the U.S. tax code. As the continued education is necessary, to be aware of future tax issues that may arise from internet currencies; as the IRS and government entities move toward concrete answers to questions surrounding the treatment of digital currencies.
Freed Maxick tax auditors stay current and update with currency guidelines, to help keep you aware of issues or implications that could affect your taxes. If you would like to learn more Contact us to connect with our experts.
We have also worked with hundreds of high tech companies and startups. Please call us to talk with one of our CPAs or business advisors about getting your high tech company to growth mode. Call us at 716.847.2651, or contact us here.