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Summing It Up

Keeping you ahead of the curve with timely news & updates.


FIRPTA (Foreign Investment in Real Property Tax Act) — What does it mean to you?

Non Resident Real Estate Requirements - Buffalo CPA Firm

What you need to know as a nonresident who sells U.S. real property interests

If you are selling a piece of U.S. real estate, you may have a tax withholding obligation to the purchaser. The FIRPTA rules require that buyers of U.S. real property know the residency status of whoever is selling the property for reasons explained below.

FIRPTA requires that a purchaser of U.S. real property withhold tax on the gross sale price if the seller is a non-U.S. person. Real property for these purposes is either a piece of real estate or a corporation that holds real estate. A non-U.S. person for this purpose includes all foreign persons and foreign entities selling or transferring property located in the U.S. Any withholding tax owed (including interest) that isn’t remitted becomes a liability of the purchaser.

FIRPTA Withholding Rate Increase

As of February 2016, the FIRPTA withholding tax rate has increased to 15% from the previous rate of 10%. The tax is calculated based on the gross sales price with no consideration for the actual gain or loss. As a result, even on a loss transaction, foreign real property sellers are looking at the potential of a 15% tax withholding from the gross proceeds.

As an example, assume (as a foreign person) you sold a piece of real estate on June 1st for $1,000,000. The purchaser would be obligated to withhold $150,000 of the sale price and remit this to the IRS. This is true regardless of what your basis in the property was at the time of the sale. However, it is possible to request a reduced rate of withholding in advance of the closing to reduce or possibly eliminate this withholding. This can save a substantial amount of money, as any tax that isn’t owed but is withheld would not be available for refund until the following year upon filing a tax return.

There is a process by which you can apply for an exemption from or reduction to this mandatory withholding. Form 8288-B can be filed on behalf of the seller. As long as this form is filed by the date of closing, the purchaser will not be required to remit the withholding tax until notified the form has been processed by the IRS.

Key Considerations

  • Any purchaser of a U.S. Real Property Interest (USRPI) should be aware of the seller’s U.S. residency status.
  • If you are a foreign seller of USRPI, the purchaser will withhold and remit 15% at settlement unless you apply for a withholding exemption.
  • There are exceptions from the withholding rules. For example, if the gross sales price is $300,000 or less and the purchaser intends to use the property as a residence, there is no withholding required.
  • All of this is in an effort to reduce the amount of withholding up front prior to filing of the tax return by the seller.

We at Freed Maxick have vast experience with these and other international matters. Please contact us if you have any questions.

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Proposed SEC. 385 Regulations: Be Aware of Their Impact!

Be_Aware_SEC_385_Regs_iStock_25882742-631972-edited.jpg

Avoid Unintended Results from Complex New Rules for Intercorporate Debt

In April 2016, the Treasury Department and the IRS issued proposed regulations under Sec. 385. If the proposed regulations are finalized, they will change the way that corporate groups treat intercompany debt. Issued along with guidance on corporate inversions, the new proposed Sec. 385 regulations target transactions that increase debt between related parties where there is no new investment in the U.S.

Following a corporate inversion or a foreign takeover of a U.S. company, a U.S. subsidiary can issue debt to its foreign parent which in turn transfers the debt to a foreign affiliate located in a low-tax jurisdiction. The U.S. subsidiary will deduct the interest expense at a higher tax rate than the tax rate paid on the interest income received by the foreign affiliate. The foreign affiliate may even implement tax strategies to avoid paying any tax on the interest income.

The new proposed regulations will make it more difficult for companies to engage in transactions described above as well as impact the U.S. tax treatment of cross-border loans between affiliated members of a multi-national enterprise, loans between commonly controlled U.S. corporations not filing a consolidated tax return, and loans between members of brother-sister U.S. consolidated return groups. The new proposed regulations will not impact loans between members of a single consolidated return group.

The new proposed regulations will do the following: 

  1. Impose new documentation and reporting requirements that must be complied with on a timely basis (defined in the new proposed regulations). If the requirements are not met, the purported debt instrument will be characterized as stock for U.S. tax purposes. A reasonable cause exception applies.
  2. Allow the IRS to treat a debt instrument issued between members of a modified expanded group as part debt and part stock to the extent dictated by the relevant facts and circumstances. A modified expanded group is based on the affiliated group principles of Sec. 1504(a) modified with a 50% ownership requirement with the common parent and includes domestic and foreign corporations, RICs, REITs, S corporations, partnerships, trusts and estates, and individuals that own at least 50% of the stock or interests in a modified expanded group member.
  3. Require recharacterization of certain debt instruments to equity. Debt instruments issued in the following situations will be recast as stock:

Debt issued by a corporation to a related corporate shareholder as a distribution

Debt issued in a two-step version of the corporate distribution where a U.S. subsidiary borrows cash from a related company and pays a cash dividend to its foreign parent

Debt issued by a corporation in exchange for stock of an affiliate, e.g. the repurchase of shares for a note or the purchase of affiliate shares for a note in what would otherwise be a Sec. 304 transaction

Certain debt issued as part of an internal asset reorganization if the instrument is received by a corporate transferor that is a modified expanded group member with respect to its transferor corporation stock. The definition of an expanded group member is derived from the affiliated group rules of Sec. 1504(a) and includes foreign and domestic corporations related by at least 80% (vote or value) direct or indirect common parent ownership. Note that an expanded group for these purposes is different than a modified expanded group mentioned above in the “part debt and part stock” rule.

Exceptions to the Rule

There are certain exceptions to the application of the new proposed regulations. The exceptions are provided for small companies that are not publicly traded, groups with less than $50 million of intercompany debt, and for routine distributions such as the distribution of current year earnings and profits.

The new proposed regulations apply to debt instruments issued or deemed issued after April 4, 2016. Intercompany debt instruments that are subject to recharacterization will continue to be treated as debt for 90 days after the issuance of final regulations. Thereafter, these debt instruments will be considered to be equity. Debt instruments issued before April 5, 2016 are grandfathered, but will be subject to the final regulations if they are significantly modified after April 4, 2016.

The new proposed regulations under Sec. 385 are complex and require careful analysis. Taxpayers should make sure they understand the impact of these new rules on all intercorporate debt transactions so that they don’t end up with unintended results. Contact us to discuss your specific situation.

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The 4-Part Test to Qualify for the R&D Tax Credit

R&D Tax Credit Test - Buffalo CPA Firm

The Research and Development (R&D) Tax Credit, recently made permanent, can be a financial boon as you work to improve cash flow in your business. As we've discussed in previous posts, if you rely on the hard sciences or use technology in your business to create or improve products or processes, you might be able to reduce your federal taxes by a portion of the qualified costs incurred.

A four-part test can help you determine if your company’s activities qualify for the R&D credit.

#1: Permitted Purposes

To qualify for the R&D credit, the activity must relate to a new or improved business component’s function, performance, reliability, quality, or composition. You don’t necessarily have to discover an innovation or advancement that’s new to your industry, only what may be innovative or new to you and your company’s processes or products.

#2: Technological in Nature

The activity performed must fundamentally rely on principles of physical sciences, biological sciences, computer science, or engineering. For example, if you’re in food production, simply adding more salt to your product won’t necessarily qualify—but a method based in hard sciences to enhance your product’s flavor might, as would similar methods designed to keep food fresher longer.

#3: Elimination of Uncertainty

The activity must be intended to discover information to eliminate uncertainty concerning the capability or method for developing or improving a product or process, or the appropriateness of the product design.

#4: Process of Experimentation

The qualifying activities must constitute the process of experimentation involving: simulation; evaluation of alternatives; confirmation of hypotheses through trial and error; testing and/or modeling; or refining or discarding of hypotheses.

Beyond definitions stipulated by the four-part test, examples of activities that might qualify for the credit include those to advance the design of an existing product or process, or those to correct significant design defects or obtain significant cost reductions or enhanced function. Costs of design, construction, and testing of pre-production prototypes and models can also qualify.

For example...

Let’s say you’re a manufacturing firm developing eyewear and you want to increase productivity 10% to 15%. Your costs for doing an evaluation of the raw materials, considering new molds, and determining such factors as the proper heating and cooling temperatures for that raw material and/or molds may qualify for the R&D credit.

Similarly, if you have a product run by software, costs of developing new software to make that product more reliable and more efficient might quality for the credit. If you’re an architectural or engineering firm, costs of researching and incorporating green technology might qualify.

Other activities potentially qualifying for the credit: conceptual formulation, design, and testing of possible product or process alternatives; launch activities involving a new component or process; or design time, tool design and testing, prototype building, and similar activities. Also:

  • Engineering efforts to develop new plant processes or technical redesign of an existing plant layout that result in substantial production gains;
  • Efforts to solve production problems where there was uncertainty as to the best solution; and
  • Design and testing involved in improving the configuration or altering the composition of an existing product or process to increase efficiency or decrease cost.

Some activities do not qualify for the R&D credit, including funded research (for example, funded by a government grant), ordinary testing and inspection, research done outside the U.S., reverse engineering (unless such engineering involves an enhancement, in which case a percentage of your R&D costs may qualify for the credit), adaptation of an existing business component to a particular customer’s requirement or need (for example, adapting a computer program you sell to a particular customer’s requirement), or research with a non-functional focus such as improving or changing style, taste, or cosmetic changes.

Also not qualifying: research after commercial production; management studies or activities; and efficiency or consumer surveys.

Qualified costs include wages paid to employees directly involved with, in direct supervision of, and in direct support of the R&D; materials and supplies used and consumed in the process; and work performed by outside contractors in any of the four parts of the test qualify as long as you retain substantial rights in what the contractors do.

The R&D credit can apply to companies in many industries. We can help you explore the potential of the R&D credit for current and prior open tax years and talk about how your efforts to grow your business could generate cash savings on your federal (and state) tax returns. Contact us to learn more.

R&D Tax Credit Assessment - Freed Maxick

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PCAOB Auditor Disclosure Requirements: A Summary of New Guidance

Audit Disclosure Requirements - Buffalo CPA Firm

The Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (PCAOB) recently issued and the Securities and Exchange Commission approved rules that will soon require audit firms to disclose engagement partner names as well as other firms that participated in the audit. These rules were created to increase transparency and accountability among audit firms and allow investors access to information on which individual partner was responsible for the audit work in a given year.

To help firms understand the implication of these rules, here is a summary of the new guidance below.

Disclosure Summary

Under the new rules, auditors will be required to file a new PCAOB Form AP, Auditor Reporting of Certain Audit Participants, for all public company audits. The following information must be disclosed on the form:

  • Name of the engagement partner and their “Partner ID” (a unique ten-digit identifier that will now need to be assigned by the firm to each partner who serves as engagement partner for issuer audits)
  • For other accounting firms participating in the audit for which the responsibility for the audit is not divided:

5 percent or greater participation: The name, city and state (or, if outside the United States, the city and country) of the headquarters’ office, and, when applicable, the Firm ID, and the percentage of total audit hours attributable to each other accounting firm;

Less than 5 percent participation: The number of other accounting firms that participated in the audit whose individual participation was less than 5 percent of total audit hours, and the aggregate percentage of total audit hours of such firms; and

  • For other accounting firms participating in the audit for which the responsibility for the audit is divided:

The name, and when applicable, the Firm ID; city and state (or if outside the United States, the city and country) of the office of the other accounting firm that issued the other auditor’s report; and the magnitude of the portion of the financial statements audited by the other accounting firm.

Effective Dates: Phased Approach

Firms will need to start naming engagement partners on the new Form AP, which is available now on the PCAOB website, starting with audits issued on or after Jan. 31, 2017. Other audit firms must be named on the form with the required additional information for public company audits issued on or after June 30, 2017. Form AP must be filed directly with the PCAOB no more than 35 days after the date the auditor’s report is first included in a document filed with the SEC.

Who is Affected?

This change impacts both the accounting firms providing the service and the companies retaining them. The additional filing provides additional transparency to stockholders and others involved with the company.

If you are interested in learning how this new filing will impact your company or to discuss your 10K filings, Freed Maxick wants to help. Contact us for more information.

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Shadow Payroll: A Growing Trend in the U.S.

Shadow Payroll - Buffalo CPA Firm

We see it happening more and more. U.S. companies are sending their employees into foreign (host) countries on temporary but at times lengthy business assignments. Employees are willingly accepting these offers, not realizing the tax exposure risks that these opportunities could present. In order to mitigate some of these risks, we see payroll departments turning to something known in the industry as “shadow payroll.”

So What is Shadow Payroll?

Shadow payroll is a mechanism used to assist with the reporting and tax withholding obligations in a host country for an employee who is remaining on his or her home country’s payroll system while on assignment in the host country. The payroll in the host country will “shadow” what is being reported in the home country, but the employee will not receive any compensation from the host country.

The purpose of the shadow payroll in the host country is to remain in compliance with jurisdictional payroll tax laws and remit any taxes or forms that need to be filed in the host country while allowing the employee to stay on the U.S. employer's retirement, stock option, and other benefit plans.

Typical example of when to use shadow payroll

A U.S. person travels on a long-term work assignment to Canada. Since the U.S. taxes income on a worldwide basis, the employee and employer must stay compliant in the U.S. while also taking into consideration any tax requirements in Canada. The employer will typically setup a shadow payroll for Canada for that U.S. person as if he or she were being compensated in Canada in order to calculate the payroll tax requirements for the wages earned in Canada. The employee will continue to be paid wages solely from the U.S. payroll system and all U.S. payroll tax requirements will also continue to be satisfied. To further complicate the matter, there may be additional state or provincial tax filing obligations that need to be considered.

While employers are concerned with keeping in compliance with all appropriate tax requirements when implementing a shadow payroll system, employees face the concern that they may be double taxed on their wages that are taxable in both the U.S. and host countries. It is important to mention that there may be foreign tax credits, exclusions, as well as tax treaties benefits available to the employees between the U.S. and certain other countries to help mediate the potential of double taxation.

If you are a U.S. company that is looking to send employees on a foreign assignment or an employee looking to avoid the risk of double taxation, please contact us.

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The New 529-ABLE Plan

529 ABLE Plan - Freed Maxick CPAs

Families of Those with Disabilities Can Save on Qualified Expenses

Section 529 of the Internal Revenue Code has been around nearly 20 years now, so most taxpayers with children are aware of the advantages of investing in a “529 Plan” for tax-advantaged savings for future college costs. Though enacted as part of the federal tax code, these plans are administered by states, and many states, such as New York, even offer a tax deduction for investing in them.

A new version of 529 plans is now becoming available. On December 19, 2014, the Achieving a Better Life Experience (ABLE) Act was enacted as section 529A of the Internal Revenue Code. The ABLE Act authorized states to establish programs allowing taxpayers to save and invest funds for disability-related expenses of eligible individuals (defined below).

Even though federally enacted in 2014, it takes states time to adopt the Act and get their programs up and running. The New York ABLE Act became effective on April 1, 2016, but is not yet available for taxpayers to invest in. New York expects the program to launch by year end 2016.

Eligible Beneficiaries

529-ABLE accounts are designed to support individuals with disabilities. To be eligible, an individual must have a disabling condition or blindness that occurred before reaching the age of 26. An account is established in the name of the beneficiary (the disabled person) or his/her parent, legal guardian, or representative, and while there is no deduction for contributions to the plan, earnings on funds invested grow tax-free as long as used on qualified disability expenses of the beneficiary. Qualified expenses include the following:

  • Education
  • Housing
  • Transportation
  • Employment training and support
  • Assistive technology and personal support services
  • Health, prevention, and wellness
  • Financial management
  • Legal fees
  • Funeral and burial expenses
  • Other expenses approved by the Treasury

It is not necessary that the beneficiary currently be under the age of 26. Any age may be a beneficiary, as long as the condition was diagnosed prior to reaching age 26. When opening an account, a certification process must be completed to ensure the beneficiary qualifies as an eligible individual.

Even though the account is held in the name of the beneficiary, the intention is to supplement any Federal/State aid the beneficiary may be receiving, such as Medicaid, SSI, and even private insurance. This is important, because the funds in a 529-ABLE plan are generally not included in total assets for federal means-tested benefits. However, if the plan balance exceeds $100,000, distributions to pay for housing will be considered for SSI.

A beneficiary is allowed to have only one ABLE account, and there is a cap on the amount contributed each year, equal to the annual gift tax exclusion (currently $14,000). Excess contributions will be subject to a 6% excise tax, and any distribution made for non-qualifying expenses will be subject to a 10% penalty. Each state will set its own limits on how much can accumulate in the plan. In New York, the plan balance is limited to $375,000. Once the account balance reaches $375,000, earnings will still grow tax-free, but no additional contributions may be made until the account balance falls below that level.

Upon death of the beneficiary, the remaining funds will be used to first pay any outstanding qualified expenses. Any excess remaining will be repaid to the state, as creditor, for reimbursement of any expenses paid by Medicaid for the beneficiary from the date the account was established. Finally, any remaining funds will be distributed to the deceased’s estate or a designated beneficiary. Any portion of that balance that represents earnings on the account will be taxed as investment earnings.

The passage of the ABLE Act provides a long overdue tax-advantaged way for families of those with disabilities to save for the costs of caring for those individuals. For help navigating what the Act can mean for your family, contact us.

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The Process to Claim Your Possible R&D Tax Credit

Claim_RD_Credit_iStock_43230472-650936-edited.jpgAfter years of being temporarily extended, the Research and Development (R&D) Tax Credit has been made permanent, a policy change that might suggest wider IRS acceptance of true R&D credit claims.

Improving your business often has underpinnings in potential R&D credible activities. Every company wants to grow and differentiate itself – and one of the common denominators for differentiation is improvement in technology, whether it is to create a new or improved product or process. If you rely on the hard sciences or use technology in your business to create or improve products or processes, you might be able to reduce your federal taxes by a portion of the related costs incurred.

How to See if You Qualify for the R&D Credit

First, it’s very helpful to take a critical look at activities that anyone in your company is undertaking to pursue an idea that would make a process more efficient, more streamlined, greener, and so on. Or perhaps you’re testing the feasibility of a new or improved product, looking at overhauling an outdated software, or exploring how to communicate more effectively with your client base through the internet.

Another helpful step is to identify and review those documents that address/substantiate project initiatives and their progress (or even lack of progress—setbacks can actually be a sign that you probably have some credible R&D activity). These documents can include project reports, engineer reports, data updates, feasibility studies, outside contracts, project aspiration memos, or memos that show your company had to change the course of the project or even abandon the project altogether.

From our experience, accumulating the data and information required to support R&D activities can be fairly easy using, for instance, such readily available financial data as payroll records and supply usage compilations that went into any department or project undertaken for an R&D initiative. It might also be wise to investigate the entire history of the project. It's not unusual to discover there are unclaimed R&D credits for prior years as well.

Don’t assume that your potential credit would be too small to be worth your research time.

Even if your company has only one engineer working on a project, that engineer might need two support staffers and a supervisor. (Experienced advisers can help you determine if your applying for the credit is worthwhile.)

Keep your data and documentation simple by focusing on criteria the IRS is looking for when claiming the R&D credit. If the documentation is not there, your R&D credit team can still vet those business improvement ideas for credibility and potential by talking to project leaders or those who have been involved with the ideas on improvement.

Another key to exploring and securing the R&D credit is efficiency and finding the right advisers to guide you through claiming the credit, both when filing the refund claim and in the unlikely event of an IRS audit. Our firm has had remarkable success in retaining the R&D credits claimed if initially challenged by the IRS. We do our homework up front. For example, we have conversations early on that explore succinctly our clients’ potential for claiming and supporting their R&D credible activity.

We also look at a company’s ability to actually generate cash refunds when claiming the credit. In a limited number of cases, the R&D credit may not generate a cash refund upon filing an amended return to claim such credits. In those cases we explore the amount of benefit and when it is expected to be realized before undertaking an R&D credit study. This rarely occurs and the IRS, beginning in 2016, has further expanded the group of companies eligible for receiving a cash benefit from the credit. Beginning this year, certain small businesses with annual revenues under $50 million may qualify to claim the credit against its alternative minimum tax liability. Prior to this companies paying AMT had to carry forward the credits for use in future years. In addition, certain small business with less than $5 million in gross receipts may offset payroll taxes by the R&D credit.

We can help you explore the potential of the R&D credit for current and prior open tax years and talk about how your efforts to grow your business could generate cash savings on your federal (and state) tax returns via the R&D credit. Contact our R&D credit experts today.

R&D Tax Credit Assessment - Freed Maxick

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Don’t Be A Stranger! Stay in Touch With Your CPA Throughout the Year.

1031 Like Kind Exchanges - Buffalo Rochester NY

Your CPA Can Help You Avoid Paying Taxes—But Only if They Know What's Going On!

For many people, the process of putting together tax information for their accountant is a burdensome chore. The chore can be that much worse when you have a small business or rental properties, etc. You finally get it done and submitted, and you sit and await your fate: refund or balance due. Whew. With that behind you, you file your records away, and are happy you don’t have to deal with that for another year. You go about your life, dealing with your real life issues… should I sell this property? Buy this one? What do we do with mom’s home, now that she is entering assisted living?

More than the messenger of whether you owe additional taxes

Your CPA is your strategic partner in minimizing taxes due. We are your advocate. But we can’t help you after the fact, when you turn in your records at tax time. We need you to contact us during the process of making these decisions, in case there are things you need to know.

Here is a real world example from the 2016 filing season.

A client of mine sent his records in and included information on the sale of one rental property and the purchase of another rental property. He assumed that because he rolled the profit from the sale into a new property, he wouldn’t be taxed on that gain. Unfortunately, that was an incorrect assumption.

When exchanging like properties, there is a way to avoid paying taxes in the near-term. Known as a Section 1031 exchange, there are several requirements that must be met. Had my client contacted me when he was contemplating the sale, I could have helped him do it in a way to avoid taxes on the transaction in 2015. But because he didn’t call me, he ended up paying a few thousand dollars in tax. This was not good news for me to deliver, and it was not good news for him to receive.

Here’s another example… My own mother.

A retiree, my mother decided to withdraw from her IRA to finance a small addition to her home. She had taxes withheld from the distribution, and assumed she would be OK. She never even thought to call and ask me. What she failed to consider was that her distribution was substantial enough to make her Social Security income taxable. She ended up paying several thousand dollars in tax, much more so than interest she would have paid on a bank loan.

The moral of the story is that we are here to help you, if you just stay in touch with us during the year. Sometimes a quick ten-minute phone call may be all that is necessary. It never hurts to ask, and there are no stupid questions. Other times, we may need a bit more information from you to sort it out. But the time necessary to evaluate it saves us time during busy season, and could potentially save you a lot of tax dollars.

So please, don’t be a stranger. We want to hear from you! For starters, contact us today.

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Time to Investigate Your Possible R&D Tax Credit

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If you rely on the hard sciences or use technology in your business to create or improve products or processes, you’re probably familiar with Research and Development (R&D) Tax Credit that can be used to reduce federal taxes by a portion of the related costs incurred.

In 2015, after 35 years of being extended over and over, the R&D credit has been made permanent—a significant change in policy that suggests a wider acceptance by the IRS of bona fide R&D credit claims.

Beginning with the 2016 tax year, your small business might qualify to claim the credit against your alternative minimum tax liability. (Qualifying small businesses include partnerships, sole proprietorships, and privately held corporations with average annual gross receipts of less than $50 million, among other conditions.) Certain eligible small businesses can also use the R&D credit against the employer’s old-age, survivors, and disability insurance liability (aka FICA taxes).

In addition, the Treasury has issued taxpayer friendly regulations that provide guidance on claiming a credit for internal use software (IUS) used principally for general and administrative purposes. R&D credit eligibility for IUS credit is subject to a higher standard and the proposed regulation provided clarity and relaxed the more stringent standards for qualification. There was also guidance that clearly acknowledged that some software development that was thought to be IUS was in fact eligible for the credit under the normal rules—for example, software design costs to improve or allow for third party interfacing.

As a result, you may have a better chance than ever of claiming the credit, one of the most generous tax incentives that the federal government offers to businesses. Now is the time to take a fresh look at your firm’s R&D efforts and your projects over the last couple of years, including software development. Any R&D activities that attempt to bring innovation into the business or its' products or services itself can be eligible for the credit.

In short, costs related to any activity that uses a technical discipline to improve a product or process may qualify. Almost any combination of using hard sciences with uncertainty as to the feasibility or design of a new or improved product or process provides opportunity to claim the federal R&D tax credit. (Note that many states also provide tax incentives for R&D activity.)

Industries That Could Benefit From the R&D Credit

Most manufacturers still don’t know they might qualify for the tax credit, which is designed to reward manufacturers who are bringing a new or improved product to market or who make the manufacturing quicker, cheaper, or greener. All types of manufacturers could be eligible for R&D credit benefits in future and prior tax years.

Similarly, many architectural and engineering firms may overlook activities that could qualify for the credit: green building design and energy efficiency innovation; structural engineering; experimenting with materials, HVAC/plumbing/electrical system designs for increased efficiencies; and high-tech equipment/manufacturing installation and design improvements.

Lastly, as discussed above, (1) software design costs to improve or allow for third party interfacing and (2) costs associated with IUS that is highly innovative may also be eligible.

The federal R&D may be a perfect financial break for your business if you know what to look for and how to navigate terms such as “Permitted Purpose” and “Elimination of Uncertainty”—in other words, the process to claim the credit.

Contact Us

We can help unravel the complexity and get you the R&D credit for your open tax years. Contact us today.

R&D Tax Credit Assessment - Freed Maxick

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Nevada's New Commerce Tax

Nevada Commerce Tax

Important Updates for Certain Business Entities in the Silver State

Nevada does not impose a corporate or personal income tax, which has made it an attractive state for many businesses. However, on June 10, 2015 a bill was signed enacting the new Nevada Commerce Tax, which is effective July 1, 2015. The first Commerce Tax Return is due 45 days after the tax year end, or August 15, 2016, for fiscal year July 1, 2015 through June 30, 2016.

The Commerce Tax is an annual gross receipts tax imposed on business entities engaged in business in Nevada that have more than $4,000,0000 of Nevada gross revenue. Business entities subject to the new commerce tax include, but are not limited to:

  • Corporations
  • Sole proprietorships
  • Partnerships
  • Limited liability companies
  • Joint ventures
  • Any other person engaged in business

Certain business entities are specifically exempt from the commerce tax, including IRC section 501 (c) non-profit organizations. Business entities not organized or incorporated in Nevada will need to complete a nexus questionnaire to determine if the Commerce Tax applies.

The Commerce Tax is based on gross receipts apportioned to Nevada, less certain exclusions and deductions. There are no deductions for cost of goods sold or other expenses. However, there is a $4,000,000 allowable standard deduction from gross receipts to arrive at Nevada taxable revenue. The Nevada taxable revenue is then multiplied by the applicable tax rate. The tax rate for each business is based on its NAICS code (North American Industry Classification System) and the rates vary from 0.051% to 0.31% depending on the industry.

In addition, the tax is imposed on a separate entity basis. It is important to note that the $4,000,0000 standard deduction can reduce business revenues subject to tax but does not exempt a business from the filing requirement. However, a business entity with Nevada gross receipts of under $4,000,000 during the taxable year can utilize a simplified reporting method.

The complexities involved with this new tax include sourcing of receipts, determining whether a business entity is subject to Commerce Tax, and the administrative aspects associated with the fiscal year and due date.
Contact Us

If you need assistance, want more information, or have questions as to whether your business is subject to this tax, please contact a member of the SALT Team at Freed Maxick.

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